Bachelor of Medicine & Bachelor of Surgery
BACHELOR OF MEDICINE & BACHELOR OF SURGERY
The MBBS degree is a five-year program of 238 credit hours. The first two years (called first professional) mostly cover the pre-clinical studies in basic medical sciences. The courses taught in the pre-clinical years deal with the normal structure and function of the organs of the body. The program also incorporates community-oriented medicine, biostatistics and preliminary clinical medicine.
In the subsequent years of clinical education and training, the students gain a broad systematic knowledge of para-clinical, medical and surgical subjects.
During the clinical period, the students are also exposed to clinical laboratories and hospital wards where they get an opportunity to become familiar with the most commonly encountered health problems. From time to time, the students are also required to participate in clinicopathological conferences to integrate various aspects of a particular disease.
Courses of Study
The curriculum conforms to the rules and regulations laid down by the Pakistan Medical and Dental Council (PM&DC). It aims at stimulating the cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains of learning. There are two broad categories of subjects covered in the MBBS program, namely basic medical sciences & para-clinical and clinical subjects.
PM&DC now requires that throughout the tenure of MBBS program the courses are to be taught in integrated system-based modular form. During the first two years the major thrust [80%] will be on basic medical sciences and during the following years on the clinical sciences and house job. Thus total period of training will be six years before a student qualifies to practice medicine.
Anatomy (Contact Hours 500)
The subject matter is structured to give an understanding of the cell biology, gross anatomy, microscopic anatomy (histology), neuroanatomy and embryology with emphasis on clinical implications. The subject is taught with the help of models, dissected cadavars, prosections, films, CD's, slides, and other audiovisual aids. MDAT 111, 112.
Physiology and Behavioral Sciences (Contact Hours 500)
The discipline of physiology includes the study of living systems from sub-cellular and cellular levels to organ function and whole body behavior. The topics covering the major organ systems of the body include cardiovascular, digestion, respiration, internal homeostasis, voluntary and involuntary motor control, energy balance and geriatic physiology. Experimental work in physiology is designed to include and illustrate important physiological concepts, and measurements. The use of advanced recording and monitoring equipment and techniques is demonstrated, emphasizing the importance of precise recording and analysis of data in the solution of medical problems. MDPL 121, 122.
The discipline of behavioral sciences include the study of consciousness and its altered states; psychological development of learning, memory, personality and human motivation in health and illness. MDBS 123.
Biochemistry (Contact Hours 300)
The science of biochemistry is fundamental to the understanding of relationships between structure and function of biomolecules in the human body. Students are taught those areas of biochemistry that are important for the understanding of nutritional, metabolic and genetic disorders, relevant to common disturbances of body functions, gene structure and its function. The course is integrated with concomitant studies of the morphology and physiology of the human organ systems. Experimental work in biochemistry will highlight important clinical applications of biochemical tests. Methods of biochemical analysis by various techniques are used for separation, identification, and measurement of biomolecules relevant to clinical sciences. MDBC 131, 132.
Pharmacology & Therapeutics (Contact Hours 300)
The science of pharmacology is concerned with the effects of drugs on the cells, organs of human beings, influence of drugs on cellular mechanisms and the fate of drugs in the body. The teaching of pharmacology is limited to general principles of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of groups of commonly used drugs. The course also contributes to studies in the clinical disciplines in which the therapeutic uses of drugs and an appreciation of adverse drug reactions form an essential part of the preparation of clinical practice. Experimental work in pharmacology is aimed at the demonstration of actions of drugs on isolated tissues and living subjects. MDPM 251.
Pathology (Contact Hours 500)
This subject includes general and special pathology, clinical and chemical pathology, microbiology, hematology and immunology. The general pathology presents a scientific study of diseases, the genetic basis of some diseases, the body's normal responses to noxious environmental stimuli and the principles of homeostasis. Abnormal and deleterious effects of the immune responses, neoplasia, infection and metabolic derangement constitute an important part of the course. The course on microbiology consists of bacteriology, mycology, virology, immunology and parasitology. Emphasis in microbiology is given on the knowledge of various infections in humans and the application of this knowledge in the diagnosis and management of infectious diseases. Practical work in the laboratory complements instruction given in lectures and tutorials. Teaching of general principles is supplemented by experimental work. Students are trained in collection of various specimens for analysis, and performing commonly used tests. MDGP 241, MDMB 242, MDSP 243.
Forensic Medicine & Toxicology (Contact Hours 100)
Students are taught the legal aspects of medical practice and the legal implications of medical disorders, in collaboration with the departments of pathology, pharmacology, hospital casualty, and other clinical sciences. The emphasis is placed on those legal aspects of medicine that a young medical graduate may be expected to face in professional life. MDFM 244.
Community Medicine (Contact Hours 250)
This subject is highly stressed in the curriculum to familiarize the students with community health problems and is taught from year one through four. It covers fields of biostatistics, epidemiology, primary healthcare and community related medicine. The subject is taught by way of lectures and tutorials, field visits to various rural communities, and through environmental health projects. MDCM 261.
Islamic and Pakistan Studies (Contact Hours 40)
These courses, though not falling under basic sciences curriculum, are important for a medical student in Pakistan. The causes of ailments of body go beyond the derangement of physiological systems of body. Its roots go deep down in the society and culture of a diseased person.
Pakistani culture and moral values are derived from its religion, Islam. The courses consist of an overview of Islam as a religion, its contribution to human civilization, its concepts of moral values, and the chief characteristics of an Islamic society.
While emphasizing the moral, constructive and reformative values of Islam, the students are guided to evolve their own codes of behavior with respect to medical ethics and relationships with patients and society. HMPS 113, HMIS 114.
Computer Applications (Contact Hours 40)
The subject involves rigorous training over 48 contact hours that enables students to use popular computer software packages and learn the course related subject matter through computer simulated educational programs that are available at the Isra University library and elsewhere. CSMO 115.
Clinical clerkships in various clinical disciplines are essential to develop basic clinical skills for accurate assessment, analysis, synthesis, and critical thinking, leading to appropriate diagnosis and management. Students are exposed to common health problems of the community. They spend much of their time in clinics, hospitals, and community health facilities, with less reliance on conventional classroom lectures. Students actively involve in the day-to-day management of patients in the wards, outpatient clinics, community health facilities,
operation theaters, and so forth. They perform their duties under the supervision of their professors. Clinico-Pathological Conferences are held and a multidisciplinary, integrated approach is adopted to correlate clinical presentations with pathology, and include comprehensive management of health problems.
Internal Medicine (Contact Hours 800)
This field of study deals with medical diagnosis, treatment and care of a diseased person. It introduces the students to the art of history taking, teaches them the basic skills in performing the physical examination of patients, trains them to prescribe appropriate investigations, interpret the results rationally, to formulate their findings orally and in writing, and provide them with the basic knowledge needed to stimulate them to reach a reasonable differential diagnosis. Internal Medicine and allied specialties include, among others, disciplines like cardiology, dermatology, psychiatry, and radiology. MDMD 361, 461.
Surgery (Contact Hours 800)
Included under this broad heading are subjects of general surgery and allied specialties consisting of orthopedics, anesthesiology, radiotherapy and radiology. Students are taught the general principles, indication and contra-indication of common surgical procedures. Emphasis is laid on developing skills in aseptic techniques, dressing, and mastering of minor surgical procedures along with pre- and post-operative care of patients. Students are given the opportunity to observe the live operations of patients through closed circuit TV, and at times be physically present, to see the whole process from beginning to the end. In addition to this, training in the skills for giving local anesthesia, intubation and resuscitation is provided during clinical clerkship in anesthesia. MDSG 371, 471.
Obstetrics and Gynecology (Contact Hours 300)
These courses cover concepts of childbirth, reproductive health, family planning and aspects of diseases specific to women. Students are assigned to take part in maternity & child welfare clinics and other community health facilities. While on duty in obstetrics and gynecology unit, the residence of student in the hospital premises is made compulsory so that they take active part in labor room procedures. MDOG 481.
Pediatrics (Contact Hours 300)
Teaching of pediatrics includes understanding of normal child growth and development, neonatology and theoretical as well as clinical aspects of diseases specific to children. The students are also familiarized with child health statistics and national health programs. MDPD 462.
Ophthalmology (Contact Hours 100)
This is a very advanced field of surgery beyond the scope of undergraduate students to diagnose and manage all the common problems of the eye. However, the students are taught and trained to diagnose and manage minor common eye problems. They are trained to recognize and refer complicated eye problems to concerned specialists. MDOP 472.
Otorhinolaryngology, ENT (Contact Hours 100)
This is a very advanced field of surgery beyond the scope of undergraduate students to diagnose and manage all the common problems of the ENT. However, the students are taught and trained to diagnose and manage minor common ENT problems. They are trained to recognize and refer complicated ENT problems to concerned specialists. MDOL 473.
Clinico-Pathological Conferences (Contact Hours 80)
Clinico-pathological conferences are held regularly in the fourth and final years. These conferences are held in rotation by the various units. The students are encouraged to use their knowledge and skills to gather relevant information, and present case studies employing an integrated approach involving concerned specialists. Students are encouraged to attend mortality and morbidity sessions in the hospital. Furthermore, the conferences provide a platform for discussion of topics of practical importance, as well as updating and reviewing of specific clinical issues. This process also improves the student's' competence and skills of public speaking and communication, and boosts up their ability to carry out literature survey, review the subject and become familiar with the art of report writing. MDCP 541.
Electives (Contact Hours 150)
Students are encouraged to gain further experience in one or two clinical subjects or carry out research on some aspect of medical sciences during annual vacations. This requirement can be fulfilled by gaining the required experience either inside the Isra University or its Hospitals. In some instances, arrangements can also be made so that the same can be accomplished in accredited institutions in Pakistan or abroad. For outside work, students themselves will bear the financial burden.