Karachi Campus

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Karachi Campus The Karachi Campus is strategically located at 5 kms from Malir No. 15, Main Shahrah-e-Faisal. The beautiful and lush green campus houses the Al-Ibrahim Eye Hospital, Al-Tibri Medical College, Isra School of Optometry and Isra Postgraduate Institute of Ophthalmology.
Al-Tibri Medical College The purpose-built college building has been designed in accordance with the specifications of Pakistan Medical & Dental Council (PM&DC), and comprises lecture halls, demonstration rooms, laboratories, museums, library, auditorium and staff offices. It is equipped with modern and state of the art teaching aids and laboratory equipment to impart quality education in a clean and serene environment.
Isra Institute of Rehabilitation Sciences It has always been the tradition of Isra Institute of Rehabilitation Sciences (IIRS)-Isra University to meet the National and International demands to cope with the challenges of the present day. The IIRS is dedicated and committed to produce professionals of high caliber to provide care to diverse communities.
Al-Tibri Medical College Al-Tibri Medical College has its own teaching hospital, which has all the essential clinical departments including Internal Medicine, General Surgery, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Paediatrics, Ophthalmology, ENT, Radiology, Clinical Laboratory and Operation Theatres.

Bachelor of Science in Vision Sciences

Courses of Study

The BS (Vision Sciences) is a 4 year program of 130 credit hours. In the third and fourth year of study, a student's of his choice specialized in one the three fields. These are optometry, Orthoptics or ophthalmic Technology. On successful completion of the program, a student qualifies for degree of BS (Optometry), BS (Orthoptics) or BS (Ophthalmic Technology), according to his field of specialization, from Isra University. Beside the theory in classes, the students are required to perform duties in out-patient clinic, Operation Theater, sub-specialty clinics, wards, out-reach screening clinics and eye camps. This is also supplemented by education in English Language, computer methods of data collection and analysis and humanities.

The studies during first year are designed to cover coursework and practical training, the successful completion of which would qualify a student for ophthalmic technician certificate that is awarded by Sindh Medical Faculty. Similarly successful completion of the second year studies along with six months internship will qualify a student for “Refractionist Certificate” that is awarded by Isra Institute of Ophthalmic Paramedics, a constituent  body  of  Isra  University.

BS Vision Science First Year First Semester (I) Fall

VNST 111 Ocular Anatomy 1(1+0)
Orbit: Salient features like position, Shape, Walls, important, relations of the orbit, important openings of the orbit, Contents of the orbit.
Extra ocular muscles: Various types, Origin, Insertion, innervations and actions, Cardinal positions of gaze, Blood supply, Nerve supply.
Eye lids: Structure of eye lid, glands, Tarsal plate and function of the eye lids.
Conjunctiva: Structure, Types, Functions
Cornea: Layers of cornea and structure 
Sclera: Structure and functions
Lens and chambers of eye: Structure of the lens and its capsule, Anterior and posterior chamber.
Aqueous: Synthesis, Composition, Outflow, Intra ocular pressure (normal values, how to measure, various methods, aqueous drainage system) Uveal tract: Iris, ciliary body, choroid.
Lacrimal system: Lacrimal apparatus structure, applied aspects (various tests to detect watering/Epiphoria)
Retina and vitreous: Vitreous composition, Attachments, retinal layers (structure and functions)

VNPL 121 Ocular Physiology 1(1+0)
The visual functioning and physiology of the human visual system, including eye and brain, Innervations and actions of extra ocular muscles, function of the eye lids, function of the conjunctiva, Physiology of cornea, functions of the cornea, factors responsible for the transparency, basic physiology of the lens, aqueous drainage system, functions of aqueous, functions of iris and ciliary body, pupil and its function, physiology and functions of tear film, functions of retina includes rods and cone functions, Functions of optic nerve and visual pathway.

ALMC 131 Microbiology 1(1+0)
Introduction to Microbiology, Difference between eukaryotes and prokaryotes, Common microorganisms, their growth requirements in vivo and invitro,  spread, treatment, Normal flora of the human body, advantages and disadvantages , Conditions causing conversion of normal flora into pathogenic organisms, Common modes of spread of infection, Bacteria: basic structure, growth, reproduction, pathogenecity and virulence factors, different classifications, laboratory procedures, gram staining, culture and sensitivity, treatment, prevention, Viruses: basic structure, growth, reproduction, pathogenecity and virulence factors, different classifications, laboratory procedures, PCR, treatment, prevention, role of viruses in research, Fungi: basic structure, growth, reproduction, pathogenecity and virulence factors, different classifications, laboratory procedures, staining, culture and sensitivity, treatment, prevention, Protozoa: basic structure, growth, reproduction, pathogenecity and virulence factors, different classifications, laboratory procedures, treatment, prevention, vertical transmission and transmission of infections through sexual contact etc, Strategies for infection control and self-protection, Immunization, Sterilization and disinfection, common microorganisms causing ocular infection

VNDE 131 Ocular Disease  I 1(1+0)
Diseases of the eyelids and the lacrimal system:
Congenital diseases: ptosis, Distichiasis, Entropion, colobma, abnormalities of the shape and position of eyelids (Entropion, Ectropion, ptosis),
Disease of the lid margins: stye, Chalazion, Blephritis, disorder of eyelashes, Trichiasis infections of eyelids.
Peri ocular tissues: herpes zoster ophthalmicus, tumors of the eyelids, basal cell carcinoma (BCC), Squamous cell carcinoma, diseases of the lacrimal system including obstructive disorders and acute and chronic Dacrocystitis.
Tear film abnormalities: Dry eye, KCS
Diseases of the conjunctiva:
Conjunctivitis: General causes, Risk factors, Clinical presentation, Bacterial conjunctivitis: specific causes, risk factors clinical presentation, management, public health advice and preventive measure, viral conjunctivitis: Specific causes, risk factors clinical presentation, Management, public health advice and preventive measures. Allergic and vernal conjunctivitis: Etiology, Aggravating factors, Diagnostic clinical features, trachoma; Epidemiology, Characteristic clinical features, Staging, Complications, Trachoma blindness and its prevention, Ophthalmia Neonatorum;  etiology, clinical presentation, complications, management and prevention, Degenerative conditions of the conjunctiva; names and clinical presentation: Diseases of the cornea: Explanation of some general terms,  corneal ulcer, corneal abrasion, Keratitis, corneal degeneration corneal opacity, risk factors for corneal diseases,  The microorganisms causing corneal infections. Corneal ulcer: Clinical features, individuals predisposed to corneal ulcer, some specific corneal ulcers like bacterial viral and fungal ulcers, role of primary eye care worker in the management of corneal ulcers, Xerophthalmia and nutritional corneal ulceration, corneal dystrophies; Definition and general presentation, corneal edema; causes and clinical presentation, keratoplasty; Definition, common indications and public health education regarding keratoplasty and corneal donations, Diseases of the sclera: Scleritis, Episcleritis, Diseases of the lens: Epidemiology of Cataract, causes and classification of cataract clinical presentation and complications associated with cataract, cataract surgery and its complications, health promotion and education strategies for the community regarding prevention of cataract, blindness, other diseases of the lens subluxation and dislocation; other congenital abnormalities, Diseases of the uvea: Definition and classification of uveitis, causes of Uveitis,  infective and non-infective, infective uveitis, Endophthalmitis, Panophthalmitis, Iridocyclitis, clinical presentation and complications, Choroiditis; definition and clinical presentation, intermediate Uveitis; detection and referral guidelines, other disease of the uvea; congenital abnormalities, colobma, aniridia, tumors and degenerative conditions, Glaucoma: Epidemiology, Prevalence, causes and classification, clinical presentation and outcome, Management, health Promotion and Education strategies for preventing glaucoma-related blindness, Ocular emergencies and the management of “red eye”: Pattern of ocular emergencies based on the degree of urgency regarding management i.e., those demanding management within minutes (immediate), within hours (early and within days (late), patient assessment and management.

HMLG 131 English I 1(1+0)
Purpose: The purpose of this course is to bring all the students at parity and equal level of proficiency. The course also intends to arm the students with essential English required in day-to-day affairs.
Outline:
Basic English conversation (Introductions, about yourself(15, 21, 28), welcome and goodbye (17, 27, 23, 48)) 2 classes + 37, 45, 47.
Essential Grammar-1 (parts of speech, articles, adjectives, adverbs, pronouns, punctuations) 7 classes.
Basic writing (Basic sentences, advanced sentences, paragraph writing, letter and applications) 5 classes.
Survival English-different real life situations (travelling, roaming around, inquiries, eating) 7 classes
Basic reading and comprehension skills (reading, understanding, remembering, answering) 2 classes.

HMIS 111 Islamic Study 1(1+0)
Purpose: The purpose of this course is to refresh the students on the basic belief system, to increase their knowledge through Quran and Hadith and to equip them with Islamic guidance on living their daily lives.
Outline:
I.          5 fundamentals of Islam 2 days
II.         5 pillars of Islam 3 days
III.        Surah Al-Furqan (63-77) 5 days
IV.       10 Ahadith 5 days
V.        Islamic ethics concerning:
o          Meeting with people 1 day
o          Conducting business 1 day
o          Rights and duties 1 day
o          Patients and doctors 1 day
o          Prayers 1 day

CLPW 111 OPD  and  Ward
Procedures I 5(0+15)
Overview of health care service:
The hospital and its various departments, the hospital language, ethics, reception and admissions, Medical documentation and record keeping, appointment and registration, management of hospital data.
History Taking: Personal details, history of present illness, information regarding general health, drug history, past history, family history, commonly met complaints in clinical practice and their interpretation.
Clinical examination of eye: Assessment of visual acuity, anterior segment examination, examination of the pupils, fundus examination, extra ocular movement examination, visual field examination by confrontation method IOP check up (SCHIOTZ).
Basic ophthalmic instruments and their maintenance: List of basic eye equipment for mid level eye care personnel level 1 (ophthalmic tech), care of ophthalmic instruments & lenses (diagnostic), Direct ophthalmoscope, retinoscope, Tonometer, Lensometer, Keratometer, slit lamp, diagnostic lenses.
Clinical documentation & record keeping: The importance of clinical documentation (Provides clinical data of patient), types of clinical documents, management of hospital data, role of computers in the management of hospital data (HIMS).

CLTH 131 OT Procedures  I  5(0+15)
Patient reception & assembly in OT: The ophthalmic technician should receive the patient & get them assembled in the OT; take them to their respective operation theater, they should carefully read the operation theater list and ensure the next patient is present in the OT.
Preparing the patient for surgery under local anesthesia (LA):
a.   Checking the patient identity; correct patient, correct side, correct operation, confirm the surgical plan for the concerned patient.
b.   Instillation of pre-operative eye drops; local anesthetic eye drops, mydriatics.
c.   Preparing the patient for peri bulbar local anesthetic injection, correct patient, correct side, correct operation, confirms the surgical plan. Ask the patient about diabetes and hypertension and confirm from the history sheet. If the history sheet does mention it then notify the fact to the doctor and check the BP yourself. If you are asked to prepare the injection then fill the injection yourself and don't use any injection the contents of which you don't know.  Check from the OT list if there is any specific instruction given for the concerned patient, like giving a plan local anesthetic etc. Give the injection about half an hour prior to surgery. After the injection gentle pressure need to be applied to the eye to let the anesthetic diffuse. Make sure that; the pressure is gently applied & you don't rub the cornea, the eyes do not remain open otherwise the cornea will get dried up and abraded.
Preparing a case for surgery under general anesthesia (GA):
Checking the patent identity; correct patient, especially in children, correct side, correct operation, confirm the surgical plan.
Confirm that the patient is nil by mouth especially in babies.
Ask the patient about the diabetes and hypertension and confirm from the history sheet. If the history sheet does not mention it then notify the fact to the doctor and check the BP yourself.
Check the OT medicine, Position the patient.
Post operative care in the OT; Shifting the patient after surgery and looking after the patient in recovery, explaining the post operative instructions clearly to the attendant especially for the day cases and in the case of children regarding keeping them NBP (to both inpatient and day case).
Assisting the surgeon: Anterior segment surgery like cataract, glaucoma.
Care of the instruments: To know about the different instruments used in the ophthalmic surgery, setting up various surgical trolleys.
Sterilization of various instruments: To know about the various methods of sterilization employed in the OT, to know which method is suitable for what kind of instruments/equipments and other OT items.
To know the way various OT trolleys and setup and should be able to take the trolley to the concerned OT safely without breeching the sterilization protocol. To know the sterilization and safety measures which have to be employed in case of surgery on a patient which Hepatitis B/C or AIDS.
Making different bandages and eye pads
Checking for the necessary items like various eye drops and eye pads to be in adequate amount in the OT. Keeping the patient history sheet with him as patient leaves after surgery.
Making sure that the biopsy bottles are properly labeled and handed over to the concerned personals.
Assisting in record keeping & preparation of monthly & annual statistics.
Health Education Tasks.

BS Vision Science First Year First Semester (II) Spring
HMLG 132 English  II 1(1+0)
Purpose: The purpose of this course is to improve and strengthen the grammar, conversation and writing capabilities of students. This will ensure better communication between the teachers and students while improving the answering skills too.
Outline:
·           Essential Grammar-2 (tenses, active-passive voices, prepositions) Advanced conversation (directions, meetings, debates, negotiations, banks, doctor-patient).
·           Art of presentation-1 (Introductions, timing, topic, first steps).
·           Essay writing skills (descriptions, clarity, developing).

ALPH 111 Pharmacology 1(1+0)
The Course will provide the clinical science principles of drug formulation and delivery. The material will provide a basis for understanding the therapeutic use of drugs in the treatment of external eye pathology and glaucoma. Relevant aspects of the law governing the sale and supply of ophthalmic drugs will be included together with aspects of ocular adverse reactions to systemic and ophthalmic medication.

PHARMACODYNAMICS:
Introduction and uses, Effects on the body: Desired activity and Undesirable effects, Therapeutic window, Receptor binding: types of receptors, drug receptor interactions, Mechanisms of drug action, Relationship between drug concentration and effect.

PHARMACOKINETICS:
Definition and uses, Modes of drug delivery (formulations): Liberation, Extent and rate of absorption, distribution and duration in the body, metabolism, action and excretion, their effect on the fate of the drug.

BASIC OPHTHALMIC PHARMACOLOGY:
Main categories of the delivery system of ophthalmic medications, Methods of instillation of ophthalmic medications

DIAGNOSTIC OPHTHALMIC MEDICATIONS:
Mydriatics
Cycloplegics
Fluorescein/ Indocyanine
Topical anesthetics etc

THERAPEUTIC OPHTHALMIC MEDICATIONS:
Antibiotics
Antiviral agents
Anti fungal
Antiglaucoma drugs
Anti inflammatory agents
Lubricants etc
Use of steroids and their effects
Fortified/ high concentration ophthalmic solutions preparation
SAFETY MEASURES:
The technique for accurate instillation of eye drops & ointments Importance of expiry date of medication,  Storage after opening and reuse,  Shelf life, Avoidance of contamination of the containers, List of drugs that an ophthalmic technician can safely prescribe

ALPA 121 Pathology 1(1+0)
Pathology Definition various fields of pathology importance and uses of pathology and its various subspecialties.
Cell injury  Pathogenesis and etiology of cell injury Reversible and irreversible cell injury Possible outcomes of cell injury.
Inflammation Pathogenesis and significance Causes of inflammation.
Three lines of defense in human body.
Acute inflammation Cardinal signs, gross and histologic appearance, possible outcomes Chronic inflammation.
Gross and histologic appearance, possible outcomes Comparison of the two types of inflammation Healing- definition, significance and factors responsible  Scarring- definition, significance and factors responsible Regeneration- definition, significance, ongoing scientific research Ischemia- definition causes and effect on tissue
Edema- definition, types and causes
Thrombosis- definition causes and effect on tissue Embolism- definition causes and effect on tissue Infarction definition causes and effect on tissue
Shock
Causes 
Types 
Effects on human body  
Clinical sign and symptoms
Basic principles of management Cell death: Necrosis and apoptosis- description and differentiating points Adaptive Structural Changes: Types and causes of adaptation Hypertrophy- definition, causes, types and examples Hyperplasia- definition, causes, types and examples Atrophy- definition and cause and examples  Metaplasia- definition, pathogenesis and significance Dysplasia- definition, pathogenesis and significance Anaplasia- definition  Neoplasia: definition, pathogenesis Types- benign and malignant Gross and histologic differentiation of the neoplasm's Examples of benign and malignant neoplasm's Molecular basis of carcinogenesis Genetics Important function of genes, Mutation and its causes  Overview of common genetic disorders and role of counseling.

FRCR 131 Basic & Clinical Refraction 1(1+0)
Light
Nature of light
Properties of light
Reflection of light
Refraction of light
Lenses and prisms
Common ophthalmic instruments
Refractive errors
Accommodation
Presbyopia
Aphakia 
Pseudophakia

HMPS 121 Pakistan Study 1(1+0)
Purpose: The purpose of this course is to refresh the students and provide them multiple perspectives on the creation and purpose of Pakistan. The course will allow the students to see in retrospect the growth of Pakistan into its current position and to have an insightful view of future issues.
Outline:
Events and thought development leading to Pakistan's creation  Initial problems  Domestic developments Foreign relations  Economy and politics from late 1980s till 1999  Current issues and future.

HMCM 141 Computer Science I 2(1+3)
Introduction to IT
Introduction to computer
Basic parts of computer
Hardware and software
Storage media
Introduction to operating system
Installation of operating system
Software installation
Hardware installation

CLPW 112 OPD and Ward Procedures  II 6(0+12)

CLTH 132 OT Procedures  II 4(0+12)

BS Vision Science Second Year Semester (I) Fall
HMLG 233 English III 1(1+0)
Purpose: Upon successful completion of this course the student will develop an understanding of how the language parameters work to improve the class response, subject understanding and grade improvements.
Outline: Vocabulary building-1 Art of presentation-2 (Planning, delivery, illustrations), Writing process-1 (Outline, prewriting, rewriting, summary, essay)

HMCM 242 Computer Science  II 1(0+3)
Software and types of software, System and application software, Windows XP, MS word and its applications

VNDE 232 Ocular Diseases  II 2(2+0)
Diseases of eye: Diseases of the Orbit: Common sign and symptoms associated with the orbital diseases Infections (Orbital Cellulites), Space Occupying Lesions, Graves Disease, Traumatic lesions (Blow out fracture).
Tumors of the eye (Intraocular Tumors): Eye lid tumors (BCC, SCC, melanoma), Tumors of the conjunctiva names and clinical presentation, Choroid melanoma, Choroid Hemangioma, Metastatic tumors, Melanocytomahizqhjt, Retinal & optic nerve head tumors (retinoblastoma).
Diseases of the retina and vitreous: Symptoms of retinal diseases, Types of retinal diseases, Vascular retinopathies, Diabetic and Hypertensive, Retinal detachment, Degenerative disorders, retinitis Pigmontosa, age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), Tumors of the retina (Retinoblastoma).

PTPO 231 Physical Optics 1(1+0)
Nature of Light, Theories of light, Wave theory of light, Quantum theory, Properties of Light, Interference, Coherence, Polarization, Diffraction, Reflection, Refraction, Spectrum of light, Electromagnetic Spectrum, Radiometry and photometry.

PTPG 211 Geometrical Optics 1(1+0)
Reflection of Light, Reflection of Light, Laws of Reflection, Reflection from, Plane and Spherical Surfaces.
Refraction of Light: Refraction of Light, Laws of Refraction, Refractive Index, Refraction at Plane and Spherical Surfaces, Vergence Concept.
Lenses and Prisms: Types, Properties, Nomenclature, Power of Lenses, Prism, Thick lens theory, Back Vertex Power and equivalent power.

PTVP 221 Visual Optics 1(1+0)
Physiological Optics: Optical System of the Eyes, Schematic Eye, Reduced Eye, Formation of Retinal Imagism Decentration, Optical Axis and Visual Axis, Angle alpha, Gamma and kappa, Aberrations of the optical system, Spherical Aberration, Chromatic Aberrations, Peripheral Aberrations. Optics of Emmetropia & Emmetropia: Optics of Emmetropia, Optics of Emmetropia, And Change in refractive states of eye with aging. Advance Visual Functions Assessments: Visual Acuity, Color Vision, Visual field, Contrast sensitivity, Test for visual functions assessment.
Applied Optics: Refractive error: Prevalence, Types (Myopia, Hypermetropia and Astigmatism), Etiology, Classification, Clinical features, Management. Magnification: Definition, Types. Accommodation: Accommodation, Types, Mechanism, Variation with age, Range and Amplitude of accommodation Measurement, A/C A ratio, Anomalies of accommodation. Presbyopia: Definition, Different methods of correction. Aphakia and Pseudophakia: Relative spectacle magnification, Problem with unilateral Aphakia, Anisometropia, Anisokonia, Visual fields in Aphakia.

CLRF 261 Refraction Clinic  I 4(0+12)
Assessment of VA: Factors affecting visual acuity, Eye-strain, Headache and Psychological factors, Symptoms (visual, ocular and referred) Objective Method of Refraction: Retinoscope, Methods of Retinoscope, Determination of Cylinder Axis & Power, Sphere- Cylindrical Retinoscope. Subjective Refraction: Following Objective Retinoscope, Subjective Refraction Best Visual Sphere, Jackson's Cross Cylinder, Binocular Balancing, Duo chrome Test, Transposition and its types, Cycloplegics Refraction.

MGCS 211 Communication Skills          1(0+3)
Introduction, communication, Skills, Types of communication, One way and two way, communications, Written communication, spoken communication, Importance of listening,7 sins of communication, Presentation skills and Exercises .

CLSC 251 Special Clinical Duty  I 4(0+12)
During postings at special clinics a student will be posted at various clinics like low vision clinic, squint clinic, pediatrics clinic, contact lens clinic, cornea, glaucoma and retina clinic where student work under supervision.

BSVS Vision Science Second Year Semester (II) Spring
HMLG 234 English  IV 1(1+0)
Purpose: This course will enable the students to handle all sorts of assignments, presentations and comprehension challenges that can otherwise prove to be an obstacle in the learning process.
Outline: Vocabulary building-2 (15 lessons), Art of presentation-3 (Anecdotes, quotes, examples, responses, practical), Writing process-2 (story, reviews, correspondence etiquettes).

PTDP 241 Dispensing Optics  I 1(1+0)
Introduction: Role of Dispensing in Ophthalmology, Prescription, Analysis, for distance & Near Addition. Lenses for Spectacles: Single Vision Lenses, Bifocal, Trifocal, Photo chromatic Lenses, additional benefits for Spectacles (Hard coating, tints, MAR), Measurement for Spectacles Fitting: IPD (Distance + near), BVD, Blank Size, Centration, Spectacle Correction for Presbyopia: Bifocal, Trifocal, Vary focal.Focimetery in Dispensing: Single vision lenses Focimetry, Sphere and cylinder, Prisms.

PTIP 231 Instrument Optics 1(1+0)
Ophthalmoscope, Retinoscope, Contrast sensitivity, Color vision,  visual, acuity measurements (trial case lenses and accessories in the trial box, glare & contrast testing, potential acuity meter and stereo tests)., focimeter,  Keratometry, Tonometer, Cross cylinder, Maddox rod their Optical principal and Clinical uses.

HMCM 243 Computer Science  III           1(0+3)
Microsoft Power Point XP, Opening, Starting, saving a presentation, inserting new slides, working with text, creating charts, using Animation, Showing your presentation.

CLSC 252 Special Clinical Duty II 4(0+12)
During postings at special clinics a student will be posted at various clinics like low vision clinic, squint clinic, pediatrics clinic, contact lens clinic, cornea, glaucoma and retina clinic where student work under supervision.

CLRF 262 Refraction Clinic  II 4(0+12)
Assessment of VA: Factors affecting visual acuity, Eye-strain, Headache and Psychological factors, Symptoms (visual, ocular and referred) Objective Method of Refraction: Retinoscope, Methods of Retinoscope, Determination of Cylinder Axis & Power, Sphere- Cylindrical Retinoscope. Subjective Refraction: Following Objective Retinoscope, Subjective Refraction Best Visual Sphere, Jackson's Cross Cylinder, Binocular Balancing, Duo chrome Test, Transposition and its types, Cycloplegics Refraction.

CLLB 241 Optical Laboratory  I 5(0+15)
Students during posting at the optical laboratory will learn fitting, grinding, axis marking, manually and on automatic machines. To mark optical center according to IPD (Inter pupillary distance), mark the bifocal segment and varilax segment. Selection of the frames according to face size, selection of lenses according to prescription, measure the bifocal segments.

BS Vision Science Third Year Semester (I) Fall
HMLG 336 English  V 1(1+0)
Purpose: The course is designed to introduce the students all the basics of writing dissertations, reports, selecting what to write and how to write keeping the capabilities and limitations in mind.
Outline: General academic writing-1 (Thesis statement, research outline, division, styles, establishing arguments), Research methodology-1 (Hypothesis, types, approaches, researching, reading, resources).

RFCL 341 Contact Lens  I 1(1+0)
Introduction: Brief History of Contact Lens, Material & Manufacturing Techniques, Indications & Contra Indications, Types of Contact Lenses: Hard Contact Lenses, Soft Contact Lens, Special types of Contact Lenses: Prescription of Contact Lenses, Prescription Methods, Uses of contact lenses.

PTCL 361 Clinical Optics 1(1+0)
The course will cover the general optometric practice and refractive management of the patients suffering from different types of refractive errors. The students will learn the examination techniques and approach to diagnose a visual problem, methods to perform retinoscopy and to prescribe glasses. Optical System of the Eyes: Schematic Eye, Reduced Eye, Formation of Retinal Images, Decentration, Optical Axis and Visual Axis, Angle alpha, gamma and kappa. Aberrations of the optical system; Spherical Aberration, Chromatic Aberrations, Peripheral Aberrations Optics of Emmetropia & Ammetropia: Optics of Emmetropia, Optics of Ammetropia, Change in refractive states of eye with aging. Advance Visual Functions Assessments: Visual Acuity, Color Vision, Visual field, Contrast sensitivity, Test for visual functions assessment. Refractive error: Prevalence, Types (Myopia, Hypermetropia and Astigmatism), Etiology, Classification, Clinical features, Management. Magnification; Definition, Types, Accommodation: Accommodation, Types, Mechanism, Variation with age, Range and Amplitude of accommodation, Measurement, A/C A ratio, Anomalies of accommodation. Presbyopia; Definition, Different methods of correction. Aphakia and Pseudophakia; Relative spectacle magnification, Problem with unilateral Aphakia, Anisometropia, Aniseikonia, Visual fields in aphakia. Assessment of VA: Factors affecting visual acuity, Eye-strain, Headache and Psychological factors, Symptoms (visual, Ocular and referred) Objective Method of Refraction: Retinoscopy, Methods of Retinoscopy, Determination of Cylinder Axis & Power, Sphero- Cylindrical Retinoscopy Subjective Refraction: Following Objective Retinoscopy, Subjective Refraction, Best Visual Sphere, Jackson's Cross Cylinder, Binocular Balancing, Duo chrome Test, Transposition and its types, Cycloplegic Refraction.

RFLV 351 Low Vision  I 1 (1+0)
Introduction: Definitions, Prevalence, Causes, LVA services at Primary, Secondary and Tertiary levels.
Magnification: Definition, EVD, EVP, Types of Magnification (RSM, RDM, Angular, Projection).
Low Vision Devices: Optical, Non Optical, Electronic, CLINICAL ASSESSMENT & MANAGEMENT OF LOW VISION.

PTDP 341 Dispensing Optics  II   1(1+0)
This Course introduces the optical principles of ophthalmic lenses, and the properties of spectacle lenses and frame materials. The course will cover both the theoretical properties and practical manipulation of basic forms of single vision and bifocal spectacle lenses and provide an introduction to the practical considerations of dispensing spectacle lenses including progressive lenses and frames. Introduction: Role of Dispensing in Ophthalmology. Prescription Analysis, for distance, for near Addition Lenses for Spectacles: Single Vision Lenses, Bifocal, Trifocal, Photo chromatic Lenses, additional benefits for Spectacles (Hard coating, tints, MAR)Measurement for Spectacles Fitting; IPD (Distance + Near), BVD, Blank Size, Centeration Spectacle Correction for Presbyopia: Bifocal, Trifocal, Vary focal. Focimetery in Dispensing: Single vision lenses focimetery, Sphere and cylinder, Prisms.

MGOS 321 Optical Shop Management 1(0+3)
The course will focus on essential management tools to ensure your optometry practice operates efficiently. Project management, initiating an optical shop cost estimates and budgeting, Client Information Record ,Inventory Management ,Electronic Ordering Of Stock ,Use of Barcode field to tract inventory items, planning and maintaining product/service quality, staffing and communications, Inventory Management, Communications Tracking ,Save Client Documents ,Bank Deposits, Accounting etc. Full Marketing - Mail, Telephone, E-mail, monitoring and controlling optical shop and costs Network Ready - One Store or Many Stores, optical shop ethics, optical shop safety.

HMCM 343 Computer Science IV 1(0+3)
Introduction to Network, Types of Network, Internet ,Application of internet, Understanding Internet, Microsoft Internet explorer window components, Using Email, Search Engines, Introduction to Pub Med.

CLLV 371 Low Vision Clinic  I 3(0+9)
Epidemiology of Low Vision  Definitions and Global Situation, Causes of Low Vision, Patients History & Interview  Assessment tests, Low Vision Assessment, Essentials Supplementary tests  Color Vision, Visual Fields, Visual Acuity, Magnification, Low Vision Devices  Types, EVD/EVP, Optical Devices for distance use  Telescopes & Filters, Optical Devices for near use  Magnifiers and their calculation, Electronic & High tech Low Vision Devices, Low Vision Enhancement system  Video Presentation, How to use Low Vision Devices, Environmental Modifications  Special considerations, Visual Training.

CLCL 391 Contact Lens Clinic  I 3(0+9)
The students will learn the basic knowledge of contact lenses and basic concepts in fitting of contact lenses and its use. The course will cover the major area of contact lens management, practice and methods of contact lens fitting. This Course will describe the range of contact lenses presently available in the market to correct refractive error including astigmatism and Presbyopia, Anatomy and Physiology of Cornea in relations to Contact Lens use, The History of Contact lenses, Cornea / Contact lens and Oxygen, Basic Contact lens Types Indications and Contra Indication of Contact lens use, Contact Lens materials, Contact Lens Manufacturing, Optics of Contact lens, Silicon Hydrogen Lenses, Slit Lamp Biomicorscope, Slit Lamp examination of Contact lenses patients Indicators and Findings, Astigmatism Keratometer  Contact lenses, Corneal Topography: measurement and Significance, Contact lens verification,  Introduction of Contact lens Fitting Soft Lenses, RGP Lenses Fitting, RGP Fitting Patterns, Toric Lens Fitting, Overview of care and Maintenance  method if disinfection, Chemical Properties of contact lens care products, Contact Lens Deposits.

CLLB 342 Optical Laboratory  II 3(0+12)
Students during posting at the optical laboratory will learn fitting, grinding, axis marking, manually and on automatic machines. To mark optical center according to IPD (Inter papillary distance), mark the bifocal segment and varilax segment. Selection of the frames according to face size, selection of lenses according to prescription, measure the bifocal segments.

BSVS Vision Science Third Year Semester (II) Spring
HMLG 335 English  VI 1(1+0)
Purpose: Successful completion of the course will ensure the students step into their final year well prepared for the research report they will have to write. This course will equip the students with skills and abilities to deal with the compulsory research report writing.
Outline: General academic writing-2 (sentence variation, paramedic method, reverse paramedic method, fonts, writing process revision), Research methodology-2 (presentation, writing down, referencing, getting help, finalizing, rechecking).
PTRS 352 Basic Orthoptics 1(1+0)
The basic terminologies used in Orthoptics: Binocular Single Vision: Normal Vision Development, Requirement of Binocular Vision, Simultaneous, Fusion, Stereopsis, Normal Retinal correspondence, Qualities of Binocular Vision, Sign of poor Vision in Children Abnormalities of BSV: Confusion, Diplopia, Suppression Extra Ocular Muscles: Basic Anatomy, course and physiology, Innervations, Actions Ocular Movements: Monocular, Binocular, Laws, Important term Used, Position of gaze. Strabismus: Classification, Investigation & Assessments, Management. Amblyopia & Nystagmus: Définition, Causes, Classification, Management Investigation. Accommodation & Convergence: Role of accommodation and convergence in orthoptics, Abnormalities of Convergence and its management: Convergence insufficiency

SPSD 321 Ocular investigation 1(1+0)
Ophthalmic Photography, Introduction to ophthalmic photography: Clinical Uses, Types of photography: External photography of the, Anterior segment photograph, Slit lamp photography, Post  Segment photographs, fundus photographs, Equipment: Fundus camera and its types, Fundus camera contents ,Maintenance of a fundus camera, The Technique for fundus photography, The technique for fundus photography: Preparation of the room, planning photographs, adjusting eye piece, informing the patient, seating and positioning the patient/ seating and positioning of the photographer, Alignment of the optical system, Exposure: double checking the arrangements and settings. Follow up: Processing, editing and labeling, delivery of the finished product. Point of specific importance: Dilating the pupil, Drugs commonly used with side effects doses and cautions, Instruction to be given to the patients as he/she leaves with dilated pupils, Difficult clinical situations, Photographing through small pupils, Poorly dilated pupil, Which eye to be photographed 1st when both eyes are affected, Artifacts: Definition of an artifact, Causes, Types of artifacts and the description of an artifact, Examples of some commonly seen artifacts with instructions for avoiding them.

VNCT 361 Ocular Trauma 1(1+0)
Epidemiology of ocular and orbital trauma, Prevalence and highest risk groups, Causes and pattern of ocular injuries, Occupational trauma, Prevention and care, Causes and pattern of ocular injuries, Management of ocular trauma including preventive strategies, Complications of ocular trauma.

VNCO 371 Community Ophthalmology 1 (1+0)
The Course will provide the basic public health problem relevant to eye care services and the role of optometrist in the prevention of Blindness. This will cover the major vision threatening diseases in the region / country and government and International agencies policies in the prevention of particular diseases. Basically the course will be giving an outline to the Students for their role as a primary eye care practitioner and prevention of blindness in the country.
Introduction to EPIDEMIOLOGY: Prevalence and incidences, Study types, Bioethics, Screening Programmes ,Overview of blindness, Common causes of blindness worldwide, Avoidable and unavoidable blindness, VISION 2020,CHB,PHC & PEC, Essential elements of PHC, Principles of PHC, Role of PHC worker in eye care, Integration matrix, Health Education and Promotion, Community Mobilization.

HMCM 345 Computer Science  V  1(0+3)
MS Excel and Its applications.
Internet Surfing.

CLRF 363 Refraction Clinic  III 3(0+9)
In this students will be posted at refraction clinics and mostly perform refraction and squint assessment under supervision as well as independently. Students while working in clinics fill the history and refractive examination sheets duly signed by immediate supervisor working in that clinic. This is a practical work and helped by senior doctors if a trainee faces any difficulty during performing the given tasks. Assessment of VA: Factors affecting visual acuity, Eye-strain, Headache and Psychological factors, Symptoms (visual, Ocular and referred) Objective Method of Refraction: Retinoscopy, Methods of Retinoscopy, Determination of Cylinder Axis & Power, Sphero- Cylindrical Retinoscopy Subjective Refraction: Following Objective Retinoscopy, Subjective Refraction, Best Visual Sphere, Jackson's Cross Cylinder, Binocular Balancing, Duo chrome Test, Transposition and its types. Cycloplegic Refraction: Usually performed in children.
CLRS 381 Orthoptics Clinic  I 3(0+9)
The students will learn the basic terminologies used in Orthoptics and diagnosis and management of common squint conditions. The course will cover the Binocular vision development and sensory and motor evaluation in Orthoptics management. Further students will learn theoretical understanding of the clinical investigation, diagnosis and management options for patients suffering from a range of binocular vision anomalies and Squint. Basic Terminologies uses in Squint / Orthoptics, Binocular Single vision (sensory Requirements), Binocular Single vision tests, Binocular Abnormalities, Abnormal Retinal Correspondence, Sensory Evaluation, Motor Evaluation, Cover test (Different Types and Methods),  Amblyopia, Esotropia  Congenital Esotropia, Characteristics of Esotropias, Accommodative Esotropia, Accommodation & Convergence AC / A ratio, Microtropia, Strabismus Convergence Acutus, Exotropias Types, Exotropias Management, A &V pattern + Penalization,  Synoptophore, Hess screen.

CLSC 353 Special Clinical Duty  III 3(0+9)
During postings at special clinics a student will be posted at various clinics like low vision clinic, squint clinic, pediatrics clinic, contact lens clinic, cornea, glaucoma and retina clinic where student work under supervision.

TRSR 321 Screening 2(0+6)
The screening is an outreach activity to experience the students that how to do any screening within the community, to learn the ethics of screening, importance of doing screening and how to develop referral chain for the disease population, interpret and analyze the disease severity and preventive strategies against that particular condition. The students will visit the school screening activity to learn about the refractive and primary eye care screening at the Villages and Tensile level. Refractive screening at school level is one of the major area we can reduce the burden of Refractive blindness and an Optometrist has a major role. So the emphasis on the course would be to learn the ways to reduce this burden and learning their role of outreach. The students will complete their Log Book of School Screening activity during the outreach program.

BS Vision Science Fourth Year Semester (I) Fall
ENGLISH  VII HM HMLG   437 1 (1+0)
Purpose: The course intends to facilitate the students in their research process by giving practical examples and reviews.
Outline: Applied academic writing-1, Applied research methodology-1.

SPAD 421 Advanced Diagnostics 1(1+0)
Ophthalmic Photography: Introduction to ophthalmic photography: Clinical uses Types of photography: External photography of the, Anterior segment photograph, Slit lamp photography, Post  Segment photographs, fundus photographs , Equipment: Fundus camera and its types, Fundus camera contents ,Maintenance of a fundus camera, The Technique for fundus photography , The technique for fundus photography: Preparation of the room, planning photographs, adjusting eye piece, informing the patient, seating and positioning the patient/ seating and positioning of the photographer, Alignment of the optical system, Exposure: double checking the arrangements and settings. Follow up: Processing, editing and labeling, delivery of the finished product. Point of specific importance: Dilating the pupil, Drugs commonly used with side effects doses and cautions, Instruction to be given to the patients as he/she leaves with dilated pupils, Difficult clinical situations, Photographing through small pupils, Poorly dilated pupil, Which eye to be photographed 1st when both eyes are affected, . Artifacts: Definition of an artifact, Causes, Types of artifacts and the description of an artifact, Examples of some commonly seen artifacts with instructions for avoiding them, Introduction to Lasers: Unique properties of Leaser, Monochromaticity, Directionality, Coherence, Polarization, Intensity and Power.
Basic Elements of Laser: Laser courses, Laser output, commonly used lasers in ophthalmology and their unique properties, Explanation of the basic terms used in laser applications, Spot power, Spot time, and spot number.
Common uses of lasers in ophthalmology: Diagnostic uses (laser interferometer, Laser Doppler velocimetry, co focal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy etc), Common therapeutic uses, Photocoagulation of new vessels in diabetic retinopathy, Sealing holes, tears and areas of degenerated retina posing potential threat of retinal detachment For peripheral iridectomy.
For posterior Capsulotomy after cataract surgery for pupilloplasty for Laser trabeculoplasty. In blepharoplasty & skin Resurfacing. Permanent removal of interned eye lashes, Correction of refractive errors & the removal of superficial corneal opacities.
Assisting in laser applications: Preparation of the room, Check list of items and equipment needed in Laser room, Assisting in laser applications preparation of the patient, Mental / psychological preparation, Physical preparation, History taking, Pupillary dilation, Anesthetizing the eye, Topical local anesthetic drops.
Subconjunctinal local anesthetic infection, Retrobalbar local anesthetic injection.
Indications, complications of each & precautions needed to be carried out,
Positioning the patient at the slit lamp / couch (for indirect ophthalmoscopy)
Importance of checking the safety switch before seating the patient, Special considerations, Diabetic patient, Preparing patient for peripheral iridectomy.
Maintenance of equipment at a laser clinic
Safety measures at the laser clinic: Mirrors / reflectors NOT allowed in the Laser room, Use of safety goggles, Importance of checking the safety switch after and before each application, Checking the Laser cooling mechanism for Argon Laser applications, Familiarizing oneself with control panel, Reporting any technical problem to the concerned authority for repair, “Prohibiting oneself and others from unauthorized use of Lasers”
Common complications of laser based procedures: Exacerbation of macular edema; acceleration of pre-retinal fibrosis; choroidal detachment; hemorrhage from the retina or choroids; thermal optic neuritis, Retinal whole formation; loss of accommodation and papillary abnormalities; accidental burn to the cornea, iris or lens etc.
Visual field: methods, assessment, clinical application.

RFLV  452 Low Vision  II 1(1+0)
Epidemiology of Low Vision  Definitions and Global Situation, Causes of Low Vision, Patients History & Interview  Assessment tests, Low Vision Assessment, Essentials Supplementary tests  Color Vision, Visual Fields, Visual Acuity, Magnification, Low Vision Devices  Types, EVD/EVP, Optical Devices for distance use  Telescopes & Filters, Optical Devices for near use  Magnifiers and their calculation, Electronic & High tech Low Vision Devices, Low Vision Enhancement system  Video Presentation, How to use Low Vision Devices, Environmental Modifications  Special considerations, Visual Training.

RFCL  542 Contact Lens  II 1 (1+0)
The students will learn the basic knowledge of contact lenses and basic concepts in fitting of contact lenses and its use. The course will cover the major area of contact lens management, practice and methods of contact lens fitting. This Course will describe the range of contact lenses presently available in the market to correct refractive error including astigmatism and Presbyopia, Anatomy and Physiology of Cornea in relations to Contact Lens use, The History of Contact lenses, Cornea / Contact lens and Oxygen, Basic Contact lens Types Indications and Contra Indication of Contact lens use, Contact Lens materials. Contact Lens Manufacturing, Optics of Contact lens, Silicon Hydrogen Lenses, Slit Lamp Biomicorscope, Slit Lamp examination of Contact lenses patients Indicators and Findings, Astigmatism  Keratometer  Contact lenses, Corneal Topography: measurement and Significance, Contact lens verification,  Introduction of Contact lens Fitting  Soft Lenses, RGP Lenses Fitting, RGP Fitting Patterns, Toric Lens Fitting, Overview of care and Maintenance  method if disinfection, Chemical Properties of contact lens care products, Contact Lens Deposits.

PTRS  453 Clinical Orthoptics 1(1+0)
Investigations of binocularity, Brief review the theories and principles of binocular visual function, Heterophoria tests- principles and methods, Assessment of fusional vergence  methods and normal findings, The vergence facility test, Stereopsis measurement and clinical application, The identification of binocular anomalies  nomenclature, Analysis of binocular status, The amplitude of accommodation  methods of measurement, Effect of age, Crossed  cylinder tests of accommodation, Relative ranges of accommodation, Accommodative facility test, Determination of the Presbyopic addition, Adjunctive clinical procedures (Direct ophthalmoscopy, Indirect ophthalmoscopy) Orthoptics, Clinical procedures, Vergence facility, Accommodative response, Accommodative facility, Suppression, Eccentric fixation, Fixation disparity, Paretic muscle evaluation, Orthoptic therapies, Treatment of convergence insufficiency, Fusion training, Antisuppression, Treatment of ARC.

PTDP 442 Dispensing Optics  II 1(1+0)
Review of basis of dispensing optics, Vergence  method of ray tracing, Basic optical properties of single vision lenses, Focimetery, Ophthalmic lens power and form presentation, Lens power and form transposition accurate transposition.
For thick lens, Biotic surfaces, Prescription writing, Lens shapes presentations, ophthalmic prisms and lens decentration, Specification of ophthalmic prisms.
Interaction of prisms, Prismatic effects of lens decantation, obliquely crossed cylinders, Effects and calculations of cylinders crossed at an angle, Lens material and fabrications,  Optical and physical properties of common lens materials, Selection, Introduction, Lenticular and Fresnel lenses, Optical  principles, Ophthalmic uses, Frame materials and types and measurements for frames,  Merits of different type of lens materials,  Frame components and types.
Effects of frame design on fitting, Frame and face measurement, Bifocals & trifocals and varifocals, Principles and terminology, Optical properties and fitting Multifocal, Principles and terminology, Optical properties and fitting, Special considerations, Considerations of lens thickness and calculations Calculation of thickness in edged lenses, Lens effectively, Effects of working distance and vertex distance on the refractive, Power of lenses, Spectacle lens design, Introduction to the principles and methods of ophthalmic lens design, Tinted lenses, Radiation and the eye, Ophthalmic uses of tinted and,  photochromic lenses, Spectacle fitting, Factors to be considered in lens and frame selection, Principles and practical aspects of frame fitting.

RFCR  432 Refraction  II 1(1+0)
During the course the Students will learn the basic art of refraction and will perform the independent refraction and primary eye care procedures in the outdoor patients department, during the course the students will complete the Log Book of their supervised refraction techniques. The students will learn the Pediatric management of refractive errors and other visual problems. The students will also learn the dispensing aspects of glasses in children and critical management of different refractive eye conditions in Pediatric eye care like Amblyopia, Anisometropia, etc.
Visual Assessment, Verbal Assessment, Refraction, Objective & Subjective methods, Dispensing of Glasses to Children  Problems and care.

HMCS 441 Computer Science  VI 1(0+3)
Introduction to Internet: Internet, Application of internet, Understanding Internet, Microsoft Internet explorer window components, Using Email, Search Engines, Introduction to Pub Med. 
SPSS (Statistical Program for the Social Sciences) Opening data file, Basic structure of data files, Statistical analysis, descriptive statistics, Creating charts and graphs.

RHMT  411 Research Methodology 1(0+6)
What is meant by research, Types of research: quantitative and qualitative, Types of study designs used for quantitative research, Measures of disease frequency: prevalence and incidence, Bio statistics, Selection of study/research question, Collection of preliminary information, Sampling strategies, Study tools, Study methodology, Data entry and analysis, Bioethics, Synopsis writing .

CLRF 462 Refraction Clinic  IV 2(0+6)
The auxiliary refractive techniques, Principles, Methods and applications of auto refraction, Photo refraction, Subjective refraction, Monocular subjective refraction, Principles and methods forging techniques, Fan and block techniques, Jackson's crossed cylinder, Monocular refractive endpoints -+1..00D blur, Duo -chrome test, Binocular equalization methods infinity balance, Prismatic techniques, Binocular subjective refraction, Near subjective refraction, Advance visual function assessment, Visual filed and the visual field tests, Macular functions, Color vision, Use of prisms.

RFLV 472 Low Vision Clinic  II 2(0+6)
The Student will be posted at Low Vision Clinic for practical work under supervision and as well as independently, The Course will cover the other aspects of low vision rehabilitation and counseling services. The course will also provide the learning of blind services for the visually impaired and client's behavior. The limitation and complication of Low vision management will also be one of the areas to cover during the course, Low Vision Service Other Aspects of rehabilitation, Motivation and client's behavior, Complication and side effects Services for the Blind, Orientation and Mobility Training, Braille.
Practical Training of LV Management Case Studies, Practical Training of LV Management Case Studies, Practical Training of LV Management Case Studies of the Blind Patients.

CLLB  441 Contact Lens Clinic  II 2(0+2)
The student will do their rotation of six weeks in contact lens clinic, for learning the fitting philosophies of contact lenses and their after care. The students will be given exposure in fitting of contact lenses and observing different complication with contact lens wear. The students will complete their contact Lens Log Book during the attachment in Contact lens clinic.
Contact lens related ocular complications Soft lens and their management,  Contact lens related ocular complications RGP lenses and their management,  Diagnosis and management of Dry Eyes in contact lens wear, Contact lens related eye Problems, Contact lens Aftercare, Fitting scleral lenses and an Ocular prosthesis, Business aspects of Contact lenses practice Management of Contact Lenses, Inventory of Contact Lenses.

BS Vision Science Fourth Year Semester (II) Spring
HMLG 438 English  VIII 1(1+0)
Purpose: The course intends to facilitate the students in their research process by giving practical examples and reviews.
Outline: Applied academic writing-2, Applied research methodology-2.

HMCS 442 Computer Science  VII 1(0+3)
SPSS software, uses and its applications.

RHDW 421 Dissertation Writing 4(0+12)
Student will perform research on the topics assigned and submit their dissertations as part of the requirement of their degree.

RHEP  431 Emerging Priorities 1(0+3)
This course aims to provide easy solutions to improve practice presentation, layout and the way point of sale materials are utilized within the practice, covering the important art of merchandising to encourage new business and maximize the individual sale.
First Sales Concepts
Tailoring Sales Solutions
Superior Customer Relationships
Focus in on Lenses
The Fashion Package
Enhanced Dispensing

MGOI 431 Optical Industry Management 1(0+3)
The course will cover issues related to project management, management of an optical industry and its various laboratories, skills of hiring, keeping and using staff efficiently in order to increase the sale and supply of the products.
Project management
Retail and wholesale operations
HR skills
Cost estimates and budgeting
Planning and maintaining product/ service quality
Staffing and communications
Communications Tracking
Save Client Documents
Bank Deposits, Accounting etc
Full Marketing - Mail, Telephone, E-mail
Remote tracing and ordering
Surfacing laboratories
Finishing laboratories
Industrial safety
Introduction to software's for optical industry management

CLRS 482 Orthoptics Clinic  II 3(0+9)
Investigations of binocularity, Brief review the theories and principles of binocular visual function, Heterophoria tests- principles and methods, Assessment of fusional vergence  methods and normal findings, The vergence facility test, Stereopsis measurement and clinical application, The identification of binocular anomalies  nomenclature, Analysis of binocular status, The amplitude of accommodation  methods of measurement,  Effect of age, Crossed  cylinder tests of accommodation, Relative ranges of accommodation, Accommodative facility test, Determination of the Presbyopic addition, Adjunctive clinical procedures (Direct ophthalmoscopy, Indirect ophthalmoscopy) Orthoptics, Clinical procedures, Vergence facility, Accommodative response, Accommodative facility, Suppression, Eccentric fixation, Fixation disparity, Paretic muscle evaluation, Orthoptic therapies, Treatment of convergence insufficiency, Fusion training, Antisuppression, Treatment of ARC.

CLLB 442 Optical Laboratory  III 3(0+9)
Students during posting at the optical laboratory will learn fitting, grinding, axis marking, manually and on automatic machines. To mark optical center according to IPD (Inter papillary distance), mark the bifocal segment and varilax segment. Selection of the frames according to face size, selection of lenses according to prescription, measure the bifocal segments.

CLLV 473 Low Vision Clinic  III 3(0+9)
The Student will be posted at Low Vision Clinic for practical work under supervision and as well as independently, The Course will cover the other aspects of low vision rehabilitation and counseling services. The course will also provide the learning of blind services for the visually impaired and client's behavior. The limitation and complication of Low vision management will also be one of the areas to cover during the course, Low Vision Service Other Aspects of rehabilitation, Motivation and client's behavior, Complication and side effects Services for the Blind, Orientation and Mobility Training, Braille, Practical Training of LV Management Case Studies, Practical Training of LV Management as Studies, Practical Training of LV Management Case Studies of the Blind Patients.